IT Team tərəfindən göndərildi | İyul 15, 2010

Aghdam General İnformation

As already mentioned, one of the centers of the Garabagh khanate, before the Shusha castle was built, was Shahbulag. Shahbulag castle, which was restored in 1985, was built in the territory of Aghdam district in the middle of the 18th century by Panah khan of  Garabagh. As for Aghdam town, according to some sources, its name was also related to the name of Panah khan, as it served as his rest area. Although Panah khan and his people moved to Shusha, the third capital of the khanate, he and his family members were buried in Aghdam. The area where Panah khan and his family members had lived for some period and were buried was called “Imarat of Panah khan.”

This complex contained a palace and living quarters, as well as the tombs of Panah khan, Ibrahimkhalil khan, Saryjaly khan, Mehdigulu khan and his son, the graves of Natavan and her son. All the tombs, apart from being architectural monuments similar to other tombs mentioned in the previous chapters, were valuable for the personalities buried there, who played an important role not only in the history of Garabagh, but also of all Azerbaijan.

The “Imarat of Panah khan” complex was restored in 1985-1986.

However, there were tombs in the territory of the district distinguished for their architectural peculiarities and decorations, not only among those in Azerbaijan, but also in the world. One was the Gutlu Musa oghlu tomb of world importance in Khachyndarbatli village. The tomb consisted of twelve facets, which were based on a three-level socle, and a pyramidal hipped roof. The socle and facets were faced with stone blocks. The hipped roof was covered with plane stone plates. On all facets of the body, there were light apertures or decorative bays. The entrance aperture was framed with ornamented rosettes. As for its interior, it consisted of an underground crypt and an overground cell. The latter was covered with a multi-circle arch ceiling. There was a mihrab in the southern wall. The interior was decorated with different images of animals (such as tigers, deer, wild goats, griffins). On the entrance door, an inscription showed that the tomb was built in 1314 for Gutlu Musa oghlu by the architect Shahbanzar.

The monument was restored in 1983.The next tomb, which was attractive for its architectural-spatial structure, was that of Ughurlu bay of the 19th century. The octagonal body of the monument was of more ancient construction. The intricate design of the facades and the interior with arched bays distinguished this tomb from those with simpler decorations prevailing in the period. Free of extra ornamental decorations, the monument created a favorable impression due to the perfect contours of its details and its good setting. The walls of the tomb were of neatly hewn stones of local origin.

There were also tombs in Magsudlu, Boyahmadli, Papravand, Garapirimli, Kangarli and between the Galaychylar and Gazanchy villages. Of these monuments, the one in Kangarli was restored in 1985 and those in Garapirimli and Papravand were conserved in 1987.

Among other examples of Islamic architecture, mosques were prevalent, the most famous and important of which was that of Aghdam town built in 1868. The architect of this mosque, as of those of Govharagha in Shusha and the Hajy Alakbar, Horadiz and Gochahmadli mosques in Fuzuli was Karbalayi Safikhan Garabaghi.Square in shape, the mosque was built of local limestone, with minarets of baked brick.  For that reason, the white main facade of the mosque contrasted with the semi-dark inside of the portal covered with a tall, deep and arrow-form cap. However, the record on the entrance door was seen clearly. The windows along the right and left side of the portal had a certain role in the richness of the main facade. Vaulted and cupola covering, as well as special balconies for women formed the main aim of the mosque interior. Four octagonal stone columns in the center divided the cult hall into three naves. The mihrab, which was the main element of the interior, and the minarets of the mosque were decorated tastefully by Mahammad Shukufi Tabrizi.The sharafa part (azan place) of the minarets was of local limestone used in the construction of the mosque walls, whereas the part from sharafa up to the garret was of baked brick. The minarets, the last picks of which was completed with garret of timber, resembled Garabagh carpets.

The mosque underwent restoration work in 1988-1989.There were also a certain number of mosques like those in the Khydyrly, Giyasly (restored in 1985), Shahbulag, Papravand, Abdal and Gulably villages.As for another example of Islamic architecture in Aghdam, that was the Gulably hamam. Built in completely eastern architectural style, the hamam, the architect of which was again Karbalayi Safikhan Garabaghi, was unique to this region in Azerbaijan. It consisted of six rooms, two reservoirs to keep water and an additional room, and was built of rock stone. The main hall of the hamam was connected with another by a narrow corridor, on the right and left sides of which there were two rooms. The internal walls of the halls were octagonal and cells were carved along the wall there. The cells of both halls were similar for both size and construction. In the center of one of the halls, there was an octagonal fountain in the eastern style. The cells were completed with arches, whereas the reservoirs with pointed cupola.

As other territories occupied by Armenia, Aghdam also was an ancient residential area, which can be proven by those of Uzarliktapa, Chyragtapa, Garaghajy, Goytapa, Chinartapa, Gavurgala, mounds and ancient cemeteries.The Uzarliktapa residential area was an archeological monument in the east of Aghdam town dating back to the Middle Bronze Age (first half and middle of the 2nd millennium). Its area was 2 ha with a height of 9, 8 m. The depth of the cultural level was 3 m and was rich with construction remnants, ceramics and stone materials. The residential area contained sickles, household wells, earthenware crockery, grater, mortars, earthenware churn piece, bronze-wares, different red crockery of black baking with geometrical patterns, an earthenware figure of a woman and other artefacts belonging to the population engaged with agriculture, cattle breeding and gardening.

Another ancient town and cemetery was that of Gavurgala, dating back to the 3rd-10th centuries in the territory of Sofulu village with an area of about 40 ha. The town, which was first discovered in 1959, was presumed to be the remnant of Aluen town, the residence of Albanian Tsars. During archeological excavations, which continued for 20 years, remnants and a socle of a one-nave basilica and epitaph on the grave of the brother of Gregory Hamam, Albanian Tsar, temples of pagans and Christians, beads, weaving instruments, houses of stone and so on were found in this area. Among the artefacts, were bottles of perfume made of glass in Syria and coins of Byzantine Emperor Anastasia the First.If Kalbajar could be proud of its Museum of History, Aghdam was also proud of its Museum of Bread with 694 exhibits, which was the first in the former Soviet Union and the second in the world. There were 7 000 year-old wheat seeds, examples of cosmonaut breads, agricultural instruments, oriental ovens, and examples of bread from different regions of the world, including Azerbaijan. It also possessed a 19th century mill, which was built in Aghdam, with the capacity of grinding 10 tones of seed a day. A bread quota of one child who died during the siege of Leningrad (present-day Saint-Petersburg) in the Second World War, which was presented to the museum by its mother, was also among the exhibits.

As for prominent persons of Aghdam, the first who should be mentioned is Gasym bay Zakir (1784-1857). Although he was born in Shusha and is already mentioned in the chapter on Shusha district, Zakir spent the main part of his life in Khyndyrystan village of Aghdam, which was given to him by Mehdigulu khan of Garabagh.Suleyman Sani Akhundov (1875-1939), writer, author of the first plays for the Azerbaijani Soviet stage, a brilliant pedagogue and public figure spent his childhood and youth years in the Seyidli quarter of Aghdam town.Aghdam is also the home of Gurban Pirimov (1880-1965), a talented tar-player and follower of Sadygjan, father of the Azerbaijani tar, and teacher of a number of talented tar-players. He also contributed greatly to the emergence and development of Azerbaijani opera. Being a soloist of the opera theatre, Gurban worked here continuously for 40 years. He was not only an orchestra soloist, but also a good adviser to composers and conductors, helping them to write new operas.

Adila Namazova (1926), who was the first in the former Soviet Union to study clinical features of congenital defects of the heart membrane, identified indication and contra-indication criteria for surgical operation in artificial blood circulation conditions, and proposed a classification of those defects.Khudu Mammadov (1927-1988), whose main research was in the sphere of crystal chemistry. He identified the structure of most silicate compounds, crystal chemical closeness between the class of these compounds and borates, carbonates, semi-conductors, and studied molecule and crystal structure of more than 50 organic ligand complex compounds. In his research, Kh. Mammadov widely used electron diffraction investigation, Roentgen-spectral analysis and hydrothermal synthesis.



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